Cut off from oxygen, Louisianans with medical issues grow desperate.

Oxygen supplies and fuel for generators are limited in hard-hit communities, where some relying on machines or oxygen to survive still have not received help.

LiveUpdated Sept. 1, 2021, 9:12 p.m. ETSept. 1, 2021, 9:12 p.m. ET

Tornadoes touched down in Maryland and New Jersey, with tornado watches issued for parts of New York and Connecticut. Back in New Orleans, some power began to be restored.

Here’s what you need to know:

Ida’s remnants burst into the Mid-Atlantic, spawning tornadoes in New Jersey.

Fuel shortages compound the misery in Louisiana.

Cut off from oxygen, Louisianans with medical issues grow desperate.

Lack of Power Hinders Assessment of Toxic Pollution Caused by Ida

Tips to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning when you try to stay powered up.

Here are some ways to help victims of the storm.

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Ida Brings Tornado and Heavy Rain as It Moves North

The remnants of Hurricane Ida continued to advance through the Mid-Atlantic toward southern New England, creating at least one tornado and hazardous flooding conditions in the region.

That is a tornado. Touchdown. Oh my God.

The remnants of Hurricane Ida continued to advance through the Mid-Atlantic toward southern New England, creating at least one tornado and hazardous flooding conditions in the region.CreditCredit…Gamal Diab/EPA, via Shutterstock

The remnants of Hurricane Ida barreled into the Mid-Atlantic region on Wednesday with wind-driven rain and spawning tornadoes in a stretch of central New Jersey as the system advanced on a path to southern New England. Heavy rain that could lead to life-threatening flooding was projected across the region, meteorologists said.

As the stormy weather moved northeast on Wednesday, it prompted a string of tornado warnings across parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware, including a warning for Philadelphia after the National Weather Service said a “large and extremely dangerous” tornado had been observed south of the city, near Gloucester City, N.J.

“You are in a life-threatening situation,” the service said in a statement. “Flying debris may be deadly to those caught without shelter.”

Images and video circulating on social media on Wednesday showed homes that had been damaged as well as felled trees in the Harrison Township area in Gloucester County. The Harrison Township Police Department was not immediately available for comment on Wednesday night.

The Weather Service also shared a video of a large tornado moving over the Burlington-Bristol Bridge, which connects Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

Other parts of New Jersey as well as Connecticut and New York, including New York City, were under a tornado watch until 1 a.m. Thursday, meaning conditions are favorable for tornado development.

A few tornadoes were possible as well as isolated wind gusts of up to 70 miles per hour, the Weather Service said on Twitter.

The Mid-Atlantic and New England should anticipate three to eight inches of rain on Wednesday and into Thursday from Ida, the National Weather Service said. The storm, which hit Louisiana on Sunday as a Category 4 hurricane, has been downgraded to a post-tropical cyclone, according to the National Hurricane Center.

After a tornado watch was issued on Wednesday for southeastern Pennsylvania, most of New Jersey, Delaware and eastern Maryland, meteorologists with the Weather Service in Baltimore confirmed that a tornado had touched down near Annapolis, Md. They said they had not been able to measure its speed or assess the damage.

Mitchelle Stephenson, a spokeswoman for the city of Annapolis, said that the tornado had left about 2,500 residents without power, and that the city had received reports of fallen trees. The fire and police departments had closed streets to assess the damage, according to Ms. Stephenson, who said that no injuries had been reported as of 3:30 p.m.

Video on social media showed strong, fast winds and roadways obstructed by downed utility poles, signs and trees.

The Weather Service in Baltimore warned that high winds could cause damage to houses and mobile homes, and asked residents in the southeastern part of the state to take cover in a basement or on the lowest available floor of a sturdy building.

A Weather Service meteorologist in New York warned that the system would be a “significant rainfall event” and urged drivers to stay off the roads on Wednesday evening.

“The heaviest and the steadiest rain looks to fall later tonight, probably after about 7, 8 p.m. this evening and continue into the very early hours of Thursday,” said Dominic Ramunni, a Weather Service meteorologist based on Long Island.

The governors of Virginia and West Virginia declared states of emergency on Tuesday night ahead of the system’s arrival.

Widespread river flooding could occur in southern Pennsylvania and in New Jersey, particularly in the Monongahela, Potomac, Susquehanna, Delaware and lower Hudson River basins, forecasters said.

In central Pennsylvania, Wilmore Dam was “overtopping” with approximately three feet of rainwater, said John Banghoss, a meteorologist with the Weather Service in State College, Pa. More rain water could lead to dam damage, Mr. Banghoss said.

Describing the situation as “life-threatening,” the Weather Service instructed the 42,000 residents in the area of central Pennsylvania that includes Johnstown, Ferndale and Dale, to “move immediately to higher ground.”

The last storm to hit the Northeast was Henri, which made landfall in southwestern Rhode Island on Aug. 22 as a tropical storm, sending lashing bands of rain across much of New England. Henri knocked out power in most of coastal Rhode Island, forced evacuations in Connecticut, stranded dozens of motorists in New Jersey and shattered rainfall records in New York City.

At its peak, Henri left more than 140,000 households without power from New Jersey to Maine, and in New York City, cars were left stranded in flooded streets. And Henri had followed Elsa, which in early July brought relentless rain and flash flooding to much of the Northeast, downed power lines and forced would-be subway riders to navigate waist-deep waters on their way into one Upper Manhattan station.

Meteorologists warned on Tuesday that similarly high amounts of rain could hit the region as the tropical moisture associated with Ida intersects with strong wind bands over the upper levels of the atmosphere in the Northeast.

A flash flood watch will be in effect from Wednesday night to Thursday for New York City, all of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The morning commute on Thursday could be affected by drainage flooding in much of New England and the Mid-Atlantic, particularly in metropolitan areas, meteorologists said.

“Obviously, it’s been so wet,” Mr. Ramunni said.

“I can tell you it was the second-wettest summer on record for Central Park,” he said, adding that the amount of rain in the forecast, “on top of how wet it’s been, is going to cause issues.”

In light of the flash flood watch, New York City Emergency Management issued a travel advisory for Wednesday into Thursday morning. Five to six inches of rain was expected in the city, with winds up to 30 miles per hour. Much of the flash flooding will most likely occur overnight.

The Weather Service also warned of the potential for thunderstorms late Wednesday afternoon into the night in New York, some of which may become severe with damaging winds.

At a news conference on Wednesday, Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York urged city residents to watch out for deceptively deep bodies of water that could appear to be shallow.

“We’ll get through this one, too,” Mr. de Blasio said. “Let’s get this storm by us.”

Gov. Kathy Hochul of New York ordered state agencies to prepare emergency response plans and told residents to exercise caution. Ms. Hochul also warned of the possibility of a tornado in the downstate area. More than 5,000 utility workers across the state have been prepared for damage and restoration responses, she said.

“I am urging people in areas forecast for heavy rains to prepare for flooding conditions and stay safe,” Ms. Hochul said in a statement.

The storm will move farther into New England on Thursday.

“Ida is basically going to be exiting New England by Thursday night,” said Dan Thompson, a meteorologist with the Weather Service. “But it’s going to drop heavy rain before it leaves.”

Eduardo Medina, Derrick Bryson Taylor and Ashley Wong contributed reporting.

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Hurricane Ida battered much of the Louisiana coast, with extreme flooding and damage to homes and businesses. Drone footage shows the extent of the cleanup in the area surrounding New Orleans.CreditCredit…Johnny Milano for The New York Times

As Louisiana endured its third day of widespread power losses after Hurricane Ida swept through the state, residents on Wednesday faced the compounding effects of the outages, including severe water and gas shortages.

Nearly one million customers in Louisiana were still without electricity because of Ida, which knocked out the transmission lines that power New Orleans. In many places in Jefferson Parish, access to drinking water required long waits in line. And nearly a third of the fuel stations in the state were out of gasoline or could not distribute it on Wednesday afternoon, said Patrick De Haan, the head of petroleum analysis at GasBuddy, an app that helps drivers find fuel.

“We are asking people to try to be patient and understanding,” Gov. John Bel Edwards said at a news conference. “Anytime you have a storm that is this devastating, it will take some time to get all of that infrastructure back and working.”

At least one Orleans Parish resident is presumed to have died from carbon monoxide poisoning, and two people died in Adger, Ala., while working to restore power, bringing the number of deaths linked to the storm and its aftermath to at least eight.

President Biden planned to visit Louisiana on Friday to see the damage firsthand, Senator Bill Cassidy said in a statement. A White House official confirmed the trip without offering details.

Entergy, Louisiana’s largest utility, announced in the morning that it had restored electricity to about 107,800 customers across the state but that it could be days longer before the cities hit hard by Ida had full power again.

“This is the first step in returning to normal,” Deanna Rodriguez, the chief executive of Entergy New Orleans, said at a news briefing.

Joshua D. Rhodes, a researcher at the Webber Energy Group at the University of Texas at Austin, said it was difficult to predict when power would be fully restored without a full accounting from Entergy on the damage to its system. He cautioned that it could take weeks, if not months, for everyone to get power back.

“Usually, there is a core that remains,” Mr. Rhodes said. “But this is a complete and total blackout.”

The electricity failures can shutter refineries as well as gas stations, Mr. De Haan said, creating a logjam at the precise time people relying on generators have increased demand for fuel.

Many people looking for gasoline or diesel on Wednesday were out of luck. Stations had largely run out of fuel, leaving long lines of cars — as well as people on foot, toting empty gas cans, in search of a working pump — snaking through the streets.

Collin Serigne, a photographer from Lafourche Parish, said people in and around his town of Golden Meadow were struggling with a severe lack of food and water, which was only compounded by the lack of fuel.

After delivering supplies to friends and family members, Mr. Serigne, 20, needed more gas — but the only functioning fuel station nearby had a six-hour line. So he and a friend drove for more than two hours over debris-strewn roads to reach the city of New Iberia, where the line was short, and stocked up on extra fuel.

“We saw some people fighting in a gas station,” Mr. Serigne said. “Everybody’s fueling up their extra gas tanks.”

The governor said he had already had three conversations with the White House about the state’s fuel issues.

“The state of Louisiana provides fuel for the rest of the country,” Mr. Edwards said. “And now we need the rest of the country to give back a little fuel back to Louisiana.”

At a news briefing, Cynthia Lee Sheng, the Jefferson Parish president, reiterated that the parish was “a broken community” that did not have electricity, communication or gas. She said she had taken an aerial tour over parts of the state on Wednesday and had been stunned by the widespread damage in Grand Isle and Lafitte.

“I had no idea how devastating the storm was to such an incredible amount of communities,” she said. “It looks like matchsticks, like a little pile of matchsticks.”

Cars snaked through a Costco parking lot as drivers waited to get gas in New Orleans on Wednesday.Credit…Edmund D. Fountain for The New York Times

The last time Peggy Gamberella, 63, heard from her younger sister, she said she had no drinking water or electricity and had lost everything in Hurricane Ida.

The sister, Patricia Killingsworth of Chauvin, La., has a chronic lung disease and has trouble breathing when it’s hot. She relies on a machine to help her breathe, but that device needs to be plugged in. After Ida knocked out her power, Ms. Killingsworth was able to use someone’s generator, her family said.

“I don’t see no help in sight for days,” Mr. Killingsworth, 61, wrote in a text message before pleading, “Send help if you can.”

That was on Monday evening; the family hasn’t heard from her since.

Ms. Gamberella said the family had been scrambling for two days to find help, but she lives more than 200 miles away, in Laurel, Miss.

“I just pray she is OK,” Ms. Gamberella said.

Roads are still blocked in some southern Louisiana communities throughout Terrebonne Parish because of downed trees and power lines, making access and rescue efforts difficult, according to Lauren Smith, volunteer coordinator and spokeswoman for the Cajun Navy Ground Force, a community-led disaster-response organization.

She said that while response teams work to clear the roads, finding fuel to power generators, chain saws, equipment and vehicles is one of the biggest challenges.

Having fuel for generators is especially critical for people with disabilities and medical issues, she said, citing a woman in need of hospice-level care whose generator went out on Monday.

“We had to basically take all the fuel that was running generators for our camp and take it over and fill up her generator,” she said.

In general, communities throughout the Gulf Coast region are more likely to rely on backup generators than solar power, which can lead to problems if there are fuel shortages, according to Andrew Schroeder, vice president for research and analysis at Direct Relief, a nonprofit humanitarian organization.

“Every day that goes by becomes an increasing challenge,” he said. “The first 24 hours, you have maybe not too many problems. By the time you’re into a week, and we’ve seen this with a lot of other places, then you have problems with dialysis, and you have problems with oxygen generation and ventilation.”

According to Department of Health and Human Services data, there are thousands of Medicare beneficiaries who rely on electricity-dependent medical devices living in Orleans, Jefferson, Terrebonne Parishes and other places currently without power.

In Lacombe, La., Megan Alfonso, 33, has been sheltering in place with her mother, Deborah Alfonso, since Saturday.

Her mother, 63, who has chronic lung disease, usually relies on an oxygen concentrator machine that needs to be plugged in. But after the power went out on Sunday afternoon, she switched to using oxygen tanks.

The family started out with five tanks; each one has enough air to last for about two and a half hours. By Tuesday morning, they were on their last tank.

“She’s more scared then anything,” Ms. Alfonso said of her mother. “She started not using them and just risking it so she can save them.”

After waiting for a response from emergency officials or response groups for hours, Ms. Alfonso decided to take a risk. On Tuesday evening, she drove to a medical supply office roughly 30 minutes away, even though she said the vehicle sounded “rough” after being submerged in water hours earlier.

She got four full tanks of oxygen — enough for 10 more hours.

A Shell manufacturing facility in Norco, La.Credit…Devika Krishna Kumar/Reuters

A fertilizer plant battered by Hurricane Ida belched highly toxic anhydrous ammonia into the air. Two damaged gas pipelines leaked isobutane and propylene, flammable chemicals that are hazardous to human health. And a plastic plant that lost power in the storm’s aftermath is emitting ethylene dichloride, yet another toxic substance.

Early incident reports filed with the federal authorities are starting to paint a clearer picture of the damage wrought by the hurricane to Louisiana’s industrial corridor, complicating relief efforts and adding to the conditions that make it perilous for residents to return.

An analysis of facility records and power outage data shows that at least 138 industrial sites that handle large amounts of hazardous substances are in and around parishes that have completely lost power, forcing facilities to rely on precarious backup power systems. Hurricane Harvey, which brought torrential rain to parts of Texas in 2017, knocked out cooling power at a chemical plant outside Houston, triggering a series of explosions that injured emergency workers and prompted a local evacuation.

Local officials were still assessing the full extent of the damage. But adding to the uncertainty, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality warned that more than a third of its ambient monitoring sites had stopped working, primarily because of power outages. And some sites, like the Valero Refinery in St. Bernard Parish, said they had shut down their air monitors ahead of the storm to protect the equipment.

“Survival and recovery is what’s most important right now,” said Yudith Nieto, a longtime community organizer working in both Louisiana and Texas. But as residents start to return to their homes and size up the damage, “facilities and the chemical runoff for emissions and pollution will be a big concern.”

At the fertilizer facility in Ascension Parish run by CF Industries, the country’s largest producer of fertilizer, crews were unable to reach two storage tanks that were releasing anhydrous ammonia, the company said in a report to the federal National Response Center. Anhydrous ammonia is a colorless, pungent gas that can cause severe health problems, including respiratory damage and blindness. Hurricane winds temporarily extinguished the flares that had been burning the chemical off, the company said.

Christopher Close, a spokesman for CF Industries, said there was no indication the gas leaked outside the facility. “Any significant release would likely be noticed and reported in the surrounding area (by smell),” Mr. Close wrote in an email. Company engineers were going through data to determine the extent of the ammonia released, he added.

Phillips 66 reported two damaged pipelines in St. Charles Parish were leaking propylene and isobutane, both flammable gases that are highly hazardous to human health. Local employees did not know whether any chemicals had also reached nearby waterways, the oil and gas company said in its filing. Bernardo Fallas, a spokesman for Phillips 66, said the pipelines had been shut down before the storm made landfall, and any chemicals that remained were being flared. The company would assess the damage and start repairs once its workers were able to safely reach the site, he said.

Power outages caused by the storm triggered a release of ethylene dichloride from a storage tank at a plastics plant in Plaquemine operated by Shintech, a subsidiary of the Japanese industrial giant Shin-Etsu. The chemical, used to produce PVC plastic, can harm the respiratory system and has been linked to other negative health effects. The facility is undergoing a $1.5 billion expansion, part of the continued expansion of Louisiana’s fossil fuel infrastructure. Messages left with Shin-Etsu went unanswered.

The Phillips 66 oil refinery in Alliance, La., in 2018. The company said Hurricane Ida had damaged two pipelines.Credit…Bryan Tarnowski for The New York Times

The oil and gas giant Royal Dutch Shell reported that its refinery and chemical complex in Norco had released an unknown amount of hydrogen as the company shut down the plant ahead of the hurricane’s arrival. On Monday, flooding and black smoke billowing from flares at the sprawling facility painted an apocalyptic scene.

Shell has assured the Environmental Protection Agency that a small amount of gases were still going to the flares, the agency said in its latest bulletin. The Louisiana State Police is also monitoring a gasoline spill at the site, the E.P.A. said.

Environmental groups have heightened calls for an overhaul of safety rules that are meant to protect the public from chemical leaks and accidents, saying companies should be required to more explicitly prepare for climate-related disasters like floods, wildfires and other climate impacts that threaten communities near chemical facilities. Unions representing plant workers and emergency responders, who risk some of the worst chemical exposures, also say stronger protections are needed.

“These communities already have the stress of being near these facilities on a day-to-day basis,” said Casey Kalman, a researcher at the Union of Concerned Scientists, who carried out the analysis of the industrial facilities without power.

“But every time a storm hits, the dice is being rolled and there’s the potential that there could be some kind of release or explosion that could harm them and their families,” she said. “They have to worry about a double disaster.”

Sites aren’t currently required to have backup power, and emergency responders often aren’t given sufficient information on chemicals at the site to fight leaks and fires. Environmental groups are also calling for air monitoring along fences surrounding facilities, and alerts issued in multiple languages, to keep nearby neighborhoods informed of any threats to safety.

Those neighborhoods tend to be disproportionately low-income and communities of color. Black, Latino and other people of color account for nearly half of those who live within one mile of hazardous industrial sites regulated by the E.P.A., agency data shows.

The Obama administration had moved to strengthen emergency preparedness at those sites, which are required to submit Risk Management Plans to the E.P.A. But President Donald J. Trump proposed weakening the regulation instead.

President Biden is now in the process of reviewing the rules, which would apply to more than 12,000 industrial facilities in the United States, such as chemical manufacturers, oil refineries, water treatment plants, fertilizer plants, and pulp and paper mills. More than 2,500 chemical facilities in the United States already lie in areas prone to flooding.

The flooding and widespread power failures were also hampering efforts by the E.P.A. to survey damage to 23 Superfund toxic cleanup sites in Louisiana. As of Tuesday, agency staff said they had assessed 10 and had found no chemical releases or other problems. As many as 60 percent of these sites are exposed to flooding, storm surge, wildfire, and sea level rise, a Congressional audit found in 2019.

Wilma Subra, a Louisiana chemist who has helped communities battle industrial pollution, said the combination of widespread power outages and leaks was particularly worrying.

“When a lot of the community doesn’t have access to electricity or internet, they can’t receive these alerts,” she said. “It could be happening in their backyard or their side yard and they have no way of knowing.”

Floodwater blocked access on Monday to a bridge leading to Jean Lafitte, La., over the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.Credit…Edmund D. Fountain for The New York Times

The effects of Hurricane Ida will be felt far from where it made landfall in southern Louisiana on Sunday. As it moves across the Upper Ohio Valley and toward the Northeast later in the week, it is likely to cause heavy downpours, including up to 10 inches of rain in some parts of the Mid-Atlantic. More than 80 million Americans were under a flood watch or advisory, with the majority associated with Ida’s heavy rains.

Although scientists are not yet certain about how climate change affects every characteristic of tropical cyclones, there is broad consensus that a warming climate will bring more extreme and heavy rainfall during storms. Warming increases the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, which in turn can produce more rain.

“We tend to think that once tropical storms move over land they run out of fuel,” said Rosimar Rios-Barrios, a research meteorologist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. But the winds in a tropical storm can extend thousands of miles from its center. In this case, even as Ida moves inland, Dr. Rios-Barrios said, it will continue to draw in very warm, wet air from over the Gulf of Mexico and wrap it around its cyclone. That air can contribute to worsening rainfall.

“We are seeing this increase in extreme rainfall for all types of events,” said Suzana Camargo, a climate scientist at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. “With hurricanes, we would expect more intense rainfall. That’s what happened with Ida.”

The amount of rainfall associated with a tropical cyclone has to do with how hard it rains and for how long, which itself depends on a cyclone’s speed. Rainfall from Hurricane Harvey, the wettest tropical cyclone on record, dropped more than 60 inches in eastern Texas in 2017. The heavy rain, and subsequent flooding, was caused in part by the hurricane stalling near the coastline.

Ida was continuing to move at around 10 to 15 miles an hour, “an expected pace,” said Dr. Rios-Barrios. The primary weather system in the United States moves in a general V-shaped pattern. Winds from the Western United States move south toward the Gulf of Mexico, then turn toward the northern Atlantic. But other weather systems can bring currents in opposing directions, changing the direction of a storm or altering its speed.

As a tropical cyclone moves farther inland, its path is driven by a contrast in temperature. Dr. Rios-Barrios said that may be one reason central Pennsylvania and West Virginia are expected to see such extreme rainfall, up to 10 inches in some places. There, the cyclone may develop a warm front, which will lift the air, create clouds, and produce more rainfall.

Many of these areas in the storm’s path have already received exceptional rain this summer, leaving some rivers higher and soils more saturated, worsening the risk of flooding. The Middle Tennessee Valley, which experienced flash flooding earlier this month that killed at least 20 people, may see up to four inches of rain on Tuesday and Wednesday.

Whether climate change made Ida and the scope of its flooding more likely, and if so, by how much, won’t be known until scientists can perform an attribution study, a type of research that quantifies the links between climate change and specific extreme weather events.

But scientists agree that Ida is a harbinger of future hurricanes. “If our planet continues to warm at the alarming pace that it is warming, then Ida is an example of what we might expect to see in the future,” said Dr. Rios-Barrios. “That’s very scary.”

Lowe’s employees loaded a generator onto a truck in McComb, Miss., before Hurricane Ida’s arrival.Credit…Patrick T. Fallon/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Downed transmission lines and power plants forced offline by Hurricane Ida have left New Orleans and much of the surrounding region with no electric service, and it may be weeks before repairs are complete.

So thousands of people and businesses have turned to running backup generators and using other improvised means to try to keep at least a few of their lights and appliances working and their phones charged.

But homemade power can come with risks, and the most insidious can be carbon monoxide. It’s a colorless and odorless gas produced by combustion, including the burning of gasoline, kerosene, diesel, natural gas or other fuels in a motor or generator. And if it builds up in the air you breathe, it can be deadly.

“It is important to recognize that carbon monoxide is not something that you are going to taste or see,” said Dr. Emily M. Nichols, an emergency medicine specialist in New Orleans. “It is going to create minor symptoms all the way to death.”

At least 12 people in New Orleans — including seven children — have been taken to hospitals to be treated for carbon monoxide poisoning, the city’s Emergency Medical Services said on Wednesday. They also reported one death on Tuesday, presumed to be from carbon monoxide poisoning, in the city.

In Baton Rouge, in the first 24 hours after the storm, the fire department responded to about a dozen calls from homes where carbon monoxide was ultimately detected, a spokesman said.

Officials fielded several similar calls in St. Tammany Parish: In the most severe episode, on Tuesday morning, nine people in a home, including an infant, were experiencing symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, according to a fire department spokesman in Slidell. They had been sleeping while using a generator inside of a garage. They were taken to nearby hospitals and were expected to recover.

Running a generator in any confined space — a house, a shed, a basement — can be very dangerous, health experts say. So can indoor use of charcoal, any kind of gasoline- or kerosene-powered engine, or even a portable gas camp stove.

Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, weakness, dizziness and nausea, according to the Firelands Regional Medical Center in Sandusky, Ohio. But if you are asleep or have been drinking, carbon monoxide can kill you before you become aware of any symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

It’s not unusual to see reports of carbon monoxide poisoning in times of natural disaster or severe weather, when people lose access to regular sources of power and heat and have to improvise. Scores of people were sickened and died in February when a frigid winter storm plunged unusually far south, knocking out power and bursting pipes in places like Houston.

But carbon monoxide poisoning is “entirely preventable,” the C.D.C. says.

The agency urges everyone to have working carbon monoxide detectors in their homes at all times, and local codes require them in many places. When the alarm sounds, it should be heeded immediately, by seeking fresh air outdoors or at a wide open window and by making sure everyone in the home has reached safety.

If you have a generator, use it in a well-ventilated outdoor area. If you run your car engine to charge a phone or other device, or make use of the feature on some vehicles that lets the engine be used as a generator, don’t do it in a garage.

Troy Bonvillian looked at the damage to his flooring business in Houma, La., on Monday.Credit…Callaghan O’Hare for The New York Times

Local and national volunteers and aid groups are prepared to rescue, feed and give shelter to those who have been affected by Hurricane Ida and its aftermath. Here is some guidance for those who wish to help.

Natural disasters create ripe opportunities for fraudsters who prey on vulnerable people in need and exploit the generous impulses of others who want to donate money to help them. The Federal Communications Commission noted that scammers use phone calls, text messages, email and postal mail, and even go door to door. The Federal Trade Commission has tips on how to spot a fraudulent charity or fund-raiser.

Charity Navigator, GuideStar and other organizations provide information on nonprofit groups and aid agencies, and can direct you to reputable ones.

Donations of money, rather than of goods, are usually the best way to help, because they are more flexible and can readily be redirected when needs change.

If you suspect that an organization or individual is engaged in fraudulent activity after a natural disaster, report it to the National Center for Disaster Fraud, or to the Federal Emergency Management Agency at 1-866-720-5721. FEMA also maintains a website that fact-checks information about assistance and highlights ways to avoid scams.

All Hands and Hearts prepared for Ida by stationing its disaster assessment and response team in Beaumont, Texas. Its volunteers will enter areas affected by the storm when they can, meeting initial needs that will probably include chain-saw work to clear debris and trees, roof tarping, mucking and gutting flooded houses, and sanitizing homes with mold contamination.

The Second Harvest Food Bank, which serves South Louisiana, has prepared more than 3,500 disaster-readiness food boxes with items like rehydration drinks and nutrition bars, as well as bottled water. It also maintains cooking equipment that can be transported to heat prepared meals. Donations of bottled water and cleaning supplies are welcome. Volunteers can apply to help, but donating money is the most efficient way to assist the aid effort, the organization said.

Culture Aid NOLA has set up an impromptu cooking hub at the Howlin’ Wolf nightclub in New Orleans using thawing food from the freezers of restaurants experiencing power outages. The meals will be distributed to people in need, said Julie Pfeffer, a director. The group, which was originally formed to help people during the pandemic, has a donations page. It needs volunteers, trucks and takeaway containers.

AirLink is a nonprofit humanitarian flight organization that ships aid, emergency workers and medical personnel to communities in crisis. It has joined Operation BBQ Relief to supply equipment, cooks and volunteers to prepare meals for people affected by the storm. Donations are welcome.

SBP, originally known as the St. Bernard Project, was founded in 2006 by a couple in St. Bernard Parish who were frustrated by the slow response after Hurricane Katrina. It focuses on restoring damaged homes and businesses and supporting recovery policies. Its Hurricane Ida plan needs donations, which will pay for supplies for home rebuilding and protective equipment for team members.

A number of volunteer rescue groups operate under some variation of the name Cajun Navy. One is Cajun Navy Relief, a volunteer disaster response team that became a formal nonprofit organization in 2017; it has provided relief and rescue services during more than a dozen of Louisiana’s floods, hurricanes and tropical storms. The team has identified supplies that are needed and is accepting donations.

Rebuilding Together New Orleans, which uses volunteer labor to repair homes, accepts donations to help with its work. The organization has also created an online wish list, and a hotline number: 844-965-1386.

Bayou Community Foundation works with local partners in Terrebonne Parish, Lafourche Parish and Grand Isle in coastal southeast Louisiana. It has set up an Ida relief fund.

Louisiana Baptists, a statewide network of 1,600 churches, has an online form for people to request help in recovery. Its relief efforts include the removal of trees from homes and the tarping of roofs, as well as meals, laundry services and counseling. Those wishing to donate can go here.

AmeriCares, a health-focused relief and development organization, is responding to Ida in Louisiana and Mississippi and matching donations. Vito Castelgrande, the leader of its Hurricane Ida team, said the organization would begin assessing damage in the hardest-hit communities when it is safe to travel.

Mercy Chefs, a Virginia-based nonprofit group, was founded in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans, the hometown of its founder, Gary LeBlanc. The organization has served more than 15 million meals to people affected by natural disasters or who have other needs. The group has deployed two mobile kitchens to serve hot meals in Ida’s wake and is accepting donations.

GoFundMe has created a centralized hub with verified GoFundMe fund-raisers to help those affected by Ida. It will be updated with new fund-raisers as they are verified.

Project HOPE has sent an emergency response team with 11 medical volunteers and has distributed 8,000 hygiene kits, which include items like shampoo, soap, a toothbrush, deodorant and first-aid supplies. Donations can be made solely for Hurricane Ida emergency relief.

The Red Cross has mobilized hundreds of trained disaster workers and relief supplies to support people in evacuation shelters. About 600 volunteers were prepared to support Ida relief efforts, and shelters have been opened in Louisiana and Mississippi, with cots, blankets, comfort kits and ready-to-eat meals. The organization has also positioned products needed for blood transfusions. Donations can be made through redcross.org, or 1-800-RED-CROSS (1-800-733-2767), or by texting the word REDCROSS to 90999.

The Salvation Army has prepared field kitchens and other relief supplies to help along the Gulf Coast.

United Way of Southeast Louisiana is collecting donations for a relief fund to rebuild and provide long-term assistance, including community grants.

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